Anggit Meitri posted an update 1 month, 1 week ago
Name : Anggit Meitri
NIM : 17202241057
Class : PBI B 2017
Introduction to Discourse Analysis
Journal Review I
THE DEVELOPMENT OF WRITTEN DISCOURSE COMPETENCE IN ELT MATERIALS: A PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS
This article was written by Isabel Alonso Belmonte from Universidad Autónoma de Madrid and Anne McCabe from Saint Louis University, Madrid Campus,
Discourse or text has become the basic unit of analysis, and language textbooks present texts, short or long, as a basis for both understanding and practicing language use within larger meaningful contexts. Besides, discourse analysts have brought readers and writers to the fore, laying emphasis on the text as an intermediary between sender and receiver, rather than as a detached object in which meaning is somehow stored. In attempting to re-construct the mental processes readers go through, cognitive approaches to discourse have offered practical pointers for classroom methods, such as pre-text activities in the reading class designed to activate background knowledge (or schemata) or
The discourse-oriented written practice offered provides a more or less explicit focus on text types, overall text organization and structure, but the transfer of knowledge about different text types to the student’s own writing is not made explicit in most of the ELT materials reviewed, and as a result, learners imitate texts when writing, rather than coming to an understanding of different generic structures. Besides, activities which contribute to the development of inner text structure, such as patterns of sequencing and information structure, are very much neglected in ELT materials. The sum of all these omissions leads to the common reality of our daily teaching practice: many ELT students with an average knowledge of English that still show problems in organising their ideas in their written production at the macro and micro level. there is also little focus on how the context and situation affect the written text learners produce. Writing activities on register and politeness are very scarce and most of them are limited to one or two text types. It would be very useful to broaden the typology of texts worked on in the classroom and to provide some practice on the most common politeness strategies in English so that the students could contrast them with the ones used in their own language (for further research in this area, see Ballesteros). Finally, the other criteria receive very little focus through writing activities.
In conclusion, the effective writing instruction involves guiding students to an awareness of their readers, and the interactional strategies, background understanding and rhetorical conventions these readers are likely to expect. These are premises that the writing activities reviewed do not meet. As a result, we firmly believe that there is still a great deal to be done in developing the notion of written discourse competence in the ELT classroom. It is believed a possible way of improving this situation could be providing second and foreign language teachers, as well as for materials creators with professional training in pedagogical discourse analysis. However, when most ESL teachers think of discourse analysis, they usually consider it as an unpractical and non-applicable information for their language classroom, which, not incidentally, is difficult to read because it is so technical.